0974-4150 (Online)
0974-4169 (Print)

Author(s): Dipanjan Karati, Somsubhra Ghosh, Parna Pati, Debgopal Ganguli, Puja Saha


DOI: 10.52711/0974-4150.2022.00085   

Address: Dipanjan Karati1, Somsubhra Ghosh2*, Parna Pati3, Debgopal Ganguli4, Puja Saha5
1School of Pharmacy, Dept. of Pharmaceutical Science, Techno India, Kolkata, W. B., India, 700091.
2School of Pharmacy, The Neotia University, Jhinger Pole, Dimond Harbour, W.B., India, 743368.
3Department of Pharmaceutics, DmbH Institute of Medical Science, Dadpur, Hooghly, W. B., India, 712305.
4School of Pharmacy, Seacom Skills University, Bolepur, W. B., India, 713125.
5Mata Gujri College of Pharmacy, Mata Gujri University, Kishanganj, Bihar, India, 855107.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 15,      Issue - 6,     Year - 2022

Chromatography is a method for the isolation of a mixture into separate sections. It is usually based on the principle of partition of solute between two phases. It usually consists of a mobile phase and a stationary phase. The advancement of the mobile process in the planar stationary stage is evoked by different external or internal forces. Capillarity and gravity are the intrinsic force whereas external forces are electric field, pump, and centrifugal forces. Thin layer chromatography and high-pressure thin layer chromatography are based on the adsorption theory. Forced flow thin layer chromatography is also based on the adsorption principle. FFTLC is an authoritative method of separation that uses a solvent pump to extract the sample mixture into a pressurized ultra-micro cavity containing an adsorbent analytical or preparative planer bed. FFTLC needs no or slight sample preparation as in TLC. One relation between FFTLC and high-pressure liquid chromatography is that as in HPLC, the maximum layer length is used for analytical and preparatory separation. FFTLC is a process in which continuous production and continual evaporation of the mobile phase from the end of the chromatography plate produces forced-flow. Here, we focus on FFTLC, an advanced and more sophisticated chromatographic technique.

Cite this article:
Dipanjan Karati, Somsubhra Ghosh, Parna Pati, Debgopal Ganguli, Puja Saha. Review on Forced Flow Thin Layer Chromatography: An updated Analytical Technique. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2022; 15(6):499-5. doi: 10.52711/0974-4150.2022.00085

Dipanjan Karati, Somsubhra Ghosh, Parna Pati, Debgopal Ganguli, Puja Saha. Review on Forced Flow Thin Layer Chromatography: An updated Analytical Technique. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2022; 15(6):499-5. doi: 10.52711/0974-4150.2022.00085   Available on:

1.    Kar A. Pharmaceutical Analysis. First edition, Volume II, CBS Publisher and Distributors Pvt. Ltd., Delhi, 2014, p. 161-168. 191-196. 302-312.
2.    Kala´ sz H, Ba´thori M, Ettre LS, Polyak B. Displacement thin-layer chromatography of some plant ecdysteroids by forced-flow development. Journal of Planar Chromatography. 1993, 6, 481–486.
3.    Mohammad AS, Moheman A, El-desoky GE. Amino acid and vitamin determinations by TLC/HPTLC: review of the current state. Central European Journal of Chemistry.2012; 10(3): 731-750.
4.    Petrovic M, Hernando, Díaz-Cruz, Barceló D. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of pharmaceutical residues in environmental samples- a review. Journal of Chromatography A. 2005; 1067: 1–14.
5.    Sonia K, Shree BS, Lakshmi KS. HPTLC Method Development and Validation- an overview. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research 2017;9(5):652-657.
6.    Shewiyo DH, Kaale EA, Dejaegher B. HPTLC methods to assay active ingredients in pharmaceutical formulations: A review of the method development and validation steps. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis.2012;66: 11-23.
7.    Schurig V. Review on Separation of enantiomers by gas chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A.2001;906: 275–299.
8.    Tyihák E, Körmendi F, Knoll J, Mincsovics E, Gulyás A, Kalász H et al. Process of closed thin-layer chromatography using sorbent layer on a support (Zártrétegkromatográfiáseljáráshordozólaprarétegzettszorbensréteggel) Hungarian Patent 173.749, Patent pending: 13 May 1976, Patent given on 6 October 1980.
9.    Gubitz G, Schmid MG. Chiral separation by chromatographic and electromigration techniques. Biopharm. Drug Dispos 2001; 22: 291–336.
10.    Gocan S, Cimpan G. Review of the Analysis of Medicinal Plants by TLC: Modern Approaches. Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies 2013;27(7): 1377-1411.
11.    Kaale E, Risha P, Layloff T. TLC for pharmaceutical analysis in resource limited countries. Journal of Chromatography A, 2011;1218: 2732–2736.
12.    Silver, J. Let Us Teach Proper Thin Layer Chromatography Technique! J. Chem. Educ. 2020; 97 (12): 4217–4219.
13.    Soudi AT, Hussein OG, Elzanfaly ES, Zaazaa SE, Abdelkawy M. Stability Indicating TLC–Densitometric Method for Determination of Alcaftadine in Presence of its Degradation Products and Dosage form Preservatives, RJPT, 2020; 13(11):5171-5176.
14.    Kumar S, Jyotirmayee K, Sarangi M. Thin Layer Chromatography: A Tool of Biotechnology for Isolation of Bioactive Compounds from Medicinal Plants. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res 2013;18(1): 126-132.
15.    Sakur AA, Mannaa F,Eddin MYZ. Preparing a New Chromatographic support from Local Syrian Clay and using it in Thin Layer Chromatography for Simultaneous Determination of Paracetamol, Caffeine and Aspirin in Tablets. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(4):2119-4.
16.    Khanji M, Kawas G, Haroun M, Rasheed MA, Sakur AA. Quantitative determination of albendazole forced degradation percentages by densitometric thin layer chromatographic method. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2020; 13(5): 2207-2213.
17.    Sahu M, Sinha M, Rao IA, Sallawad SS, Ahirwar B. A Study of Variation in Ball Point Ink of Different Brands by Thin Layer Chromatography. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2017; 10(12): 4261-4263.
18.    Santiago M, Strobel S. Thin Layer Chromatography. Methods in Enzymology 2013; 533:303-324.
19.    Sherma J. Planar Chromatography. Anal. Chem2008; 80: 4253–4267.
20.    Kalíková K, Slechtová T, Vozka J, Tesařová E. Supercritical fluid chromatography as a tool for enantioselective separation-A review. Analytica ChimicaActa2014;821: 1–33
21.    Meshram D, Bagade S, Taj MA. simple TLC method for analysis of fluconazole in pharmaceutical dosage forms. J. Planar Chromatography2008;21: 191–195.
22.    Bele AA, Khale A. An overview on thin layer chromatography, IJPSR 2010; 6: 256-267.
23.    Lade B, Patil AS, Paikrao H, Kale A. A Comprehensive Working, Principles and Applications of Thin Layer Chromatography 2014; 5(4):486-503.
24.    Shirkhedkar AA, Borse JS, Patil, Patil AS, Application of Normal and Reversed-Phase TLC/ Densitometry Methods for Determination of Naratriptan Hydrochloride in Tablet dosage form. Asian J. Pharm. Ana. 2018, 8(2):91-95.
25.    Salunke PA, Barhate SD, Chavhan BR, Patil SS, Wagh RS, Rathod SB, Separation of Dyes by Mixed Hydrotropic Thin Layer Chromatography. Asian J. Pharm. Ana. 2019, 9(3):151-155.
26.    Hasegawa H, Shinohara Y, Masuda N, Hashimoto T, Ichida K. Simultaneous determination of serine enantiomers in plasma using Mosher’s reagent and stable isotope dilution gas chromatography– mass spectrometry. Journal of Mass Spectrometry 2011; 46:502–507.
27.    Fuchs B, Suss R, Teuber K, Eibisch M, Schiller J. Review on Lipid analysis by thin-layer chromatography—A review of the current state. Journal of Chromatography A2011;1218: 2754–2774.
28.    Sherma J. Modern thin layer chromatography. J. AOAC International. 2008; 91:1142-1144.
29.    Dheer R, Swarnkar SK, Syeed F. Chromatographic Analysis of Barleriaprionitis Linn. RJPT 2019; 12(8):3679-3686.
30.    Bhole RP, Jagtap SR, Chadar KB, Zambare YB. Review on Hyphenation in HPTLC-MS, RJPT2020;13(2):1028-1034.
31.    Chaudhry S, Patil RB. A Review on Stability Indicating Analytical Method Development and Validation by HPTLC. Am. J. Pharm Tech Res. 2018; 8(1): 82-93.
32.    Mmirakor V, Vaidya V, Menon S, and Champanerker P. HPTLC method for determination of colchicines in a pharmaceutical formulation. J Planar Chromatography 2008; 21: 187–189.
33.    M. Prajapati LM, Patel A, Patel JR, Joshi AK, Kharodiya M. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography Method for Simultaneous Estimation of Cefepime Hydrochloride and Sulbactam Sodium. Asian J. Pharm. Ana. 2016; 6(4): 207-212.
34.    Bhusari VK, Dhaneshwar SR. Method Development and Validation of Simultaneous Estimation of Atenolol, Amlodipine besylate and Aspirin in bulk drug and formulation by HPTLC. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(1):213-8.
35.    Sharma DB, Aphale P, Sinnarkar V, Chitlange SS. Asha Thomas. Standardization of Homoeopathic Mother Tincture of Strychnousnux vomica with the help of High-Performance Thin Layer Chromatography and correlation of its alkaloid markers with its Toxicological action. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(8):4203-6.
36.    Botz L, Nyiredy Sz, Sticher O. The principles of long distance OPLC, a new multi-layer development technique. Journal of Planar Chromatography.1990;3:352–354.
37.    Mubeen G, Reddy CHM, Pal M. HPTLC method for estimation of metformin hydrochloride. Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal2008;1(2):445-448.
38.    Wong KH, Naumovski VR, Li KM, Li GQ, Chan K. Differentiating Puerariae Lobatae Radix and Puerariae Thomsonii Radix using HPTLC coupled with multivariate classification analyses. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 2014;95: 11-19.
39.    Ramu B, Chittel KB. High performance thin layer chromatography and its role pharmaceutical industry: review. Open science journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering2018;5(3): 29-34.
40.    Ali M, Moheman A, Desoky GEE. Amino acid and vitamin determinations by TLC/HPTLC: review of the current state. Cent. Eur. J. Chem. 2012; 10(3): 731-750.
41.    Mincsovics E. Potential of the flowing eluent wall and aliquot on-line detection in the OPLC 50 and 100 systems. Journal of Planar Chromatography 2008; 21:97-102.
42.    Patel M, Development and Validation of Simultaneous Estimation of Two Catecholamines in Combine Dosage Form by HPTLC Method. Asian J. Pharm. Ana.2014, 4(2):57-77.
43.    Kirthi A, Shanmugam R, Mohana Lakshmi S, Ashok Kumar CK, Padmini K, Shanti Prathyusha M, Shilpa V. Analytical Method Development and Validation of a Stability-indicating RP-HPLC Method for the Analysis of Danazol in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form. Asian J. Pharm. Ana. 2016, 6(4): 227-234.
44.    Thangabalan B, Salomi M, Sunitha N, Manohar Babu S, Development of validated RP-HPLC method for the estimation of Itraconazole in pure and pharmaceutical dosage form. Asian J. Pharm. Ana. 2013,3(4):119-123.
45.    Knapp, D. Handbook of Analytical Derivatization Reactions.1st Edition, Wiley-Interscience, 1979,2-24, 449-453, 482.
46.    Flodberg G, Roeraade J. High pressure thin-layer chromatography on 3micron spherical particle beads. Journal of Planar Chromatography.1993;6:252–255.
47.    Floadberg G, Roerade J. A device for high pressure thin-layer chromatography. Journal of Planar Chromatography. 1995;8:10–13.
48.    Tyihák E, and Mincsovics E. Forced-Flow Planar Liquid Chromatographic Techniques. Journal of Planar Chromatography2010;23(6): 382–395
49.    Fernando WPN, Larrivee ML, Poole CF. Investigation of the Kinetic Properties of Particle-Loaded Membranes for Solid-Phase Extraction by Forced Flow Planar Chromatography. Analytical Chemistry1993; 65: 588-595.
50.    Kala´sz H, Nagy J, Mincsovics E, Tyiha´k E. Circular development with over pressured thin-layer chromatography; Journal of Liquid Chromatography. 1980; 3: 845–855.
51.    Gocan S. Stationary phases for thin-layer chromatography. Journal of Chromatographic Science.2002;40:538–549.
52.    Studziński M. Forced flow, and physical field enhanced thin-layer chromatography. Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies 2018; 41:301-308.
53.    Nyiredy S. The bridge between TLC and HPLC: over pressured layer chromatography (OPLC). Analytical chemistry 2001; 20 (2): 91-100.
54.    Mincsovics E, Tyiha´k E, Kala´sz H. Resolution and retention behaviour of some dyes in over-pressured thin-layer chromatography. Journal of Chromatography1980;191: 293–300.
55.    Kala´sz H. Forced-Flow Planar Chromatography in the Rear-View Mirror. Journal of Chromatographic Science 2015; 53:436–442.
56.    Bojczuk M, Żyżelewicz D, Hodurek P. Centrifugal partition chromatography – a review of recent applications and some classic references. Journal of Separation Science. 2017; 40 (7):1597–1609.
57.    NyiredySz. Review on Forced Flow Planner Chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A.2013; 1000:985–999.
58.    Fate´r Z, Szabady B, Nyiredy Sz. Two-dimensional over-pressured layer chromatographic separation of barbiturate derivatives. Journal of Planar Chromatography.1995;8:145–147.
59.    Rajendran A. Design of preparative-supercritical fluid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography. A.2012; 1250:227–249.
60.    Ciesla L, Hajnos MW. Two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography in the analysis of secondary plant metabolites, Journal of Chromatography A2009;1216:1035–1052.
61.    Felix G, Berthod A, Piras P, Roussel C. Part III: Supercritical fluid chromatographic separations. Separation Purification Review2008; 37: 229–301
62.    Raharjo TJ, Verpoorte R. Methods for the analysis of cannabinoids in biological materials- a review. Phytochemistry Analytical 2004;15: 79-94.
63.    Wacoo AP, Wendiro D, Vuzi PC, Hawumba JF. Methods for Detection of Aflatoxins in Agricultural Food Crops. Journal of Applied Chemistry 2014, 1-15.
64.    Sherma J, Rabel F. A review of thin layer chromatography methods for determination of authenticity of foods and dietary supplements.Journal of liquid chromatography and related technologies 2018; 1-13.
65.    David AZ, Mincsovics E, Antal I, Furdyga E, Zsigmond Z, Klebovich I. OPLC combined with NIR Spectroscopy-a novel technique for pharmaceutical analysis. Journal of Planar Chromatography 2006; 19:355–360.

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Kateryna Taran, Ayaou Abderrahim, Vera Kravchenko, Olena Novosel, Svitlana Taran

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2020.00034.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Tentu Nageswara Rao, Muralidhar Reddy Avuthu, B. Venkata Reddy, SNVS Murthy

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2016.00076.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Prasanna Reddy Battu, MS Reddy

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Sravani A

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2018.00144.X         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Nachiket S. Dighe, Priyanka R. Varade, Ganesh S. Shinde, Priya S. Rao

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2019.00028.2         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): B. Balaswami, P. Venkata Ramana, B. Subba Rao, P. Sanjeeva

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2018.00023.8         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Vatchavai Bhaskara Raju, Bonthu Mohan Gandhi, Kamatham Srinivas Sumanth, Kolli Srinivas, Tupakula N Venkata Lakshmi Neeraja

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2017.00030.X         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Tauseef Shaikh, Atar Mujum , Khan Wasimuzzama, Rukhsana A Rub

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): SS Chitlange, Kiran Bagri, DM Sakarkar

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Subhasish Chaudhur, Biswajit Chandra Das

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Nikita N. Patel, Charmy S. Kothari

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): N. Prabha, J. Rahmath Bushra

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2019.00001.4         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): K. Kishore Kumar, R.S.K. Sharma, P. Chanti Babu, M. Sreenivasa Rao, K. Durga Prasadu, D. Ravi Kumar

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2017.00067.0         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Jagadeesh Narkedimilli, Vishweshwar Vavilala, Sandeep Mohanty, Saravanan Manvalan, Jayashree Anireddy

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2018.00096.2         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Rajesh Balkrishna Tawade, Abha Sham Dhomane

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry (AJRC) is an international, peer-reviewed journal devoted to pure and applied chemistry..... Read more >>>

RNI: Not Available                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150 

Popular Articles

Recent Articles