0974-4150 (Online)
0974-4169 (Print)

Author(s): Samuel N. Ndung’u, Ruth N. Wanjau, Esther W. Nthiga


DOI: 10.52711/0974-4150.2022.00032   

Address: Samuel N. Ndung’u1*, Ruth N. Wanjau1, Esther W. Nthiga2
1Department of Chemistry, Kenyatta University, P.O Box 43844-0100, Nairobi, Kenya.
2Department of Chemistry, Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, P.O Box 657-10100, Nyeri, Kenya.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 15,      Issue - 3,     Year - 2022

Consumption of water contaminated with dyes and phenolic compounds is detrimental to human and animal wellbeing even at permissible limits. Therefore, their decontamination from water is important for the safety of consumers. Conventional water treatment techniques such as ozonation, ion exchange among others are expensive and ineffective. Adsorption as an emerging technique has gained research interest because of its ease in design, environmentally friendly and availability of materials as adsorbents in large quantities. The application of various adsorbents have extensively been reported for decontamination of dyes and phenolic compounds in wastewater such as 4-chlorophenol, Metanil Yellow (MY) dye, Phenol, Methyl green dye, Bromothymol Blue dye, Crystal violet, Methylene blue and Direct Blue 71. It has also been reported that adsorption by column continuous processes are more efficient than batch as it can be used continuously under high effluent flow rates in many pollution control processes in an industrial set up. The fixed bed column adsorption data is analyzed at different column conditions of bed height, pH, particle size, concentration and flow rate using different kinetic models such as Bohart-Adams, Thomas, Yoon-Nelson, Clark, Bed depth service time and Wolborska models amongst others to determine the column performance. The present paper involves a mini review of dynamics of fixed-bed column studies for removal of selected dyes and phenolics from a synthetic media.

Cite this article:
Samuel N. Ndung’u, Ruth N. Wanjau, Esther W. Nthiga. Fixed Bed Column Adsorption Studies of selected Phenols and Dyes using Low-cost adsorbents. A mini Review. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2022; 15(3):189-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-4150.2022.00032

Samuel N. Ndung’u, Ruth N. Wanjau, Esther W. Nthiga. Fixed Bed Column Adsorption Studies of selected Phenols and Dyes using Low-cost adsorbents. A mini Review. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2022; 15(3):189-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-4150.2022.00032   Available on:

1.    Kumar, N.S., Shaikh, H.M., Asif, M. and Al‑Ghurabi, E.H. Engineered biochar from wood apple shell waste for high‑efficient removal of toxic phenolic compounds in wastewater. Scientific Reports. 2021; 11: 1-17.
2.    Yahya, M. D., Aliyu, A. S., Obayomi, K. S., Olugbenga, A. G. and Abdullahi, U. B. Column adsorption study for the removal of chromium and manganese ions from electroplating wastewater using cashew nutshell adsorbent. Cogent Engineering. 2020; 7:1-18.
3.    Chebet, E.B., Kibet, J.K. and Mbui, D. The assessment of water quality in river Molo water basin, Kenya. Applied Water Science. 2020; 10 (4): 92-101.
4.    Jaime, L., Dalia, I., Reyna, G. and Ma, A. Study of a fixed-bed column in the adsorption of an azo dye from an aqueous medium using a chitosan–glutaraldehyde biosorbent. Adsorption Science & Technology. 2018; 36 (1–2): 215–232.
5.    Nandababu, S.L. Physicochemical analysis of ground water qualities of some areas of Imphal East District of Manipur During pre-Monsoon – 6th Phase. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2018; 11 (1):143-148.
6.    Gupta, V.K., Suhas, Tyagi, I., Agarwal, S., Singh, R., Chaudhary, M., Harit, A., Kushwaha, S. Column operation studies for the removal of dyes and phenols using a low-cost adsorbent. Global Journal of Environmental Science and Management. 2016; 2 (1): 1-10.
7.    Ishtiyak, Q. and Chhipa, R. C. Studies on the Removal of Acid Violet 49 Dye by Activated Carbon obtained from Neem Leaves (Azadirachta indica). Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2017; 10 (3):345-348.
8.    Sivarajan, A. and Shanmugapriya, V. Determination of isotherm parameters for the adsorption of Rhodamine B dye onto activated carbon prepared from Ziziphus jujuba seeds. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2017; 10 (3):362-368.
9.    Sayyed, H., Mahzar, F., Mane, V. and Wankhede, D. Adsorption studies of acetic acid on the surface of sunnhemp. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2011; 4(1): 156-159.
10.    Nedjai, R., Kabbashi, N.A., Alkhatib, M. and Alam, M. Removal of phenol from aqueous solution by adsorption onto baobab fruit shell activated carbon: Equilibrium and kinetics studies. Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques. 2020; 9 (3): 686-697.
11.    Girish, C.R. and Ramachandra, M.V. Removal of phenol from wastewater in packed bed and fluidised bed columns: A Review. International Research Journal of Environment Sciences. 2013; 2 (10): 96-100.
12.    Mwangi, I., Ngila, C., Ndung’u, P. and Msagati, T. Removal of phenolics from aqueous media using quaternised maize tassels. Journal of Environmental Management. 2014; 134: 70–79.
13.    Ndiritu J., Mwangi I. W., Wanjau R. N. and Murungi J. I.  Uptake of p-Nitrophenol (PNP) from model aqueous solutions using raw and quaternised thorn melon (Cucumis metuliferus) peels. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2021; 14 (1): 1 – 6.
14.    Álvarez-Torrellas, S., Martin-Martinez, M., Gomes, H.T. and García, O. Enhancement of p-nitrophenol adsorption capacity through N2-thermal-based treatment of activated carbons. Applied Surface Science. 2017; 414: 424–434.
15.    Eletta, O., Tijani, I. and Ighalo, J. Adsorption of Pb (II) and phenol from wastewater using silver nitrate modified activated carbon from groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) shells. The West Indian Journal of Engineering. 2020; 43 (1): 26-35.
16.    Bizuneh, A., Tesfahun, K. and Benebru, S. Removal of congo red and methyl violet dyes from waste water by adsorption on Low-cost material. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2011; 4 (7): 1148-1157.
17.    Mohamed, B.G., Nabila, S., Asma, O., Ayachi, S., Djamila, H, Zineb, M., Salah, E. and Bencheikh, S. Textile dye removal by adsorption on olive grain as solid waste from the olive oil extraction. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2020; 13 (6):424-432.
18.    El-Sayed, G. Removal of methylene blue and crystal violet from aqueous solutions by palm kernel fiber. Desalination. 2011; 272: 225-232.
19.    Dutta, M. and Basu, J. K. Fixed-bed column study for the adsorptive removal of acid fuchsin using carbon–alumina composite pellet. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2014; 11:87–96.
20.    Yang, Y., Shi, X., Zhao, M., Chu, S. and Xiao, J. Heterogeneous catalytic ozonation of phenol by a novel binary catalyst of Fe-Ni/MAC. Catalysts. 2020; 10 (10): 1-16.
21.    Wang, S., Zhong, D., Qu, G., Ning, P., Quan, J., Chen, X., Sahari, B., Qin, Q. and Das, R. Degradation of phenol in wastewater with ozone produced by self-design ozone generator. MATEC Web of Conferences. 2016; 82: 1-8.
22.    Zeng, Z., Zou, H., Li, X., Arowo, M., Sun, B., Chen, J. Chu, G. and Shao, L. Degradation of phenol by ozone in the presence of Fenton reagent in a rotating packed bed. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2013; 229: 404–411.
23.    Mbugua, G., Mwangi, I., Wanjau, R., Ollengo, M., Nthiga, E. and Ngila. C. Facile removal of fluoride ions from water using triethylamine modified polyethylene adsorbent. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2020; 13 (1): 60-64.
24.    Pinelli, D., Molina, B., Aurora, E., Kaushik, A., Basu, S., Nocentini, M., Bertin, L. and Frascari, D. Batch and continuous flow adsorption of phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewater: A Comparison between nonionic and ion exchange resins. International Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2016; 2016:1–13.
25.    Samuel N.N., Esther W.N., Ruth N.W. and James N. Kinetic modeling of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ ions adsorption onto raw and modified Artocarpus heterophyllus L. seeds from a model solution. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2021; 14 (4):237-241
26.    Thomas, M., Zdebik, D. and Niewiara, E. Removing phenols from post-processing wastewater originating from underground coal gasification using coagulation-flocculation and the H2O2/UV Process. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 2018; 27 (6): 2757-2763.
27.    Sarita, Y., Tyagi, D.K. and Yadav, O.P. The Kinetic and equilibrium studies on adsorption of rhodamine-B dye from aqueous solution onto rice husk carbon. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2011; 4 (6): 917-924.
28.    Mohamed, A., Yousef, S., Nasser, W. S., Osman, T. A., Knebel, A., Sánchez, E. P. V. and Hashem, T. Rapid photocatalytic degradation of phenol from water using composite nanofibers under UV. Environmental Sciences Europe. 2020; 32 (1): 1-8.
29.    Wanakai, S.I., Kareru, P.G., Makhanu, D.S., Madivoli, E.S., Maina, E.G. and Nyabola, A.O. Catalytic degradation of methylene blue by iron nanoparticles synthesized using Galinsoga parviflora, Conyza bonariensis and Bidens pilosa leaf extracts. SN Applied Sciences. 2019; 1 (10): 1148–1167.
30.    Kasinathan, K., Kennedy, J., Elayaperumal, M., Henini, M. and Malik, M. Photodegradation of organic pollutants RhB dye using UV simulated sunlight on ceria based TiO2 nanomaterials for antibacterial applications. Scientific Reports. 2016; 6 (1): 1-12.
31.    Malviya, D., Sharma, S., Sharma, A. and Verma, S. Electrochemical method for dye industry waste water treatment. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology. 2018; 5 (7): 2667-2673.
32.    Medel, A., Bustos, E., Esquivel, K., Godínez, L.A. and Meas, Y. Electrochemical incineration of phenolic compounds from the hydrocarbon industry using boron-doped diamond electrodes. International Journal of Photoenergy. 2012; 2012: 1–6.
33.    Amira, O., Fatiha, C., Rekia, C., Mounira, C., Mustapha, H. and Zoubir, B.A. Activated Carbons derived by Phosphoric acid Activation of Agricultural waste and their Adsorption of Methylene Blue. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2021; 14(6):435-440
34.    Iheanacho, O.C., Nwabanne, J.T., Obi, C.C. and Onu, C.E. Packed bed column adsorption of phenol onto corn cob activated carbon: linear and nonlinear kinetics modeling. South African Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2021; 36: 80–93.
35.    Bennani, K.A., Mounir, B., Hachkar, M., Bakasse, M. and Yaacoubi, A. Adsorption of cationic dyes onto Moroccan clay: Application for industrial wastewater treatment. Journal of Materials and Environmental Science. 2015; 6 (9): 2483-2500.
36.    Nouri, H. and Ouederni, A. Modeling of the dynamics adsorption of phenol from an aqueous solution on activated carbon produced from olive stones. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications. 2013; 4 (4): 254-261.
37.    Pablo, D.R., Adriana, S.F. and Leandro, S.O. Batch and column studies of phenol adsorption by an activated carbon based on acid treatment of corn cobs. IACSIT International Journal of Engineering and Technology. 2015; 7 (6): 459-464.
38.    Nguyen, T.A., Nguyen, V.T., Tran, T., Le, T.Q. and Nguyen, N.H. Batch and column adsorption of reactive dyes by eggshell powder–chitosan gel core-shell material. Moroccan Journal of Chemistry. 2021; 9 (1): 18-27.
39.    Karunarathne, H. and Amarasinghe, B. Fixed bed adsorption column studies for the removal of aqueous phenol from activated carbon prepared from sugarcane bagasse. Energy Procedia. 2013; 34: 83 – 90.
40.    Unuabonah, E.I., Olu-Owolabi, B.I., Fasuyi, E.I. and Adebowale, K.O. Modeling of fixed-bed column studies for the adsorption of cadmium onto novel polymer-clay composite adsorbent. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2010; 179:415-423.
41.    Sales, F., Serra, R., Figueirêdo, G., Hora, P. and Sousa, A. Wastewater treatment using adsorption process in column for agricultural purposes. Ambiente e Agua - An Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Science. 2019; 14 (1): 1–9.
42.    Vazquez, G., Alonso, R., Freire, S., Alvarez, J.G. and Antorrena, G. Uptake of phenol from aqueous solutions by adsorption in a Pinus pinaster bark packed bed. Journal of Hazardous Materials B. 2006; 133: 61–67.
43.    Marzbali, M.H. and Esmaieli, M. Fixed bed adsorption of tetracycline on a mesoporous activated carbon: Experimental study and neuro-fuzzy modeling. Journal of Applied Research and Technology. 2017; 15: 454–463.
44.    Barros, M., P., Arroyo, A. and Silva, E. A. General aspects of aqueous sorption process in fixed beds. Intechopen. 2013; 1-24.
45.    Cundari, L., Afrah, B D., Utami, D.I. and Matondang, N.I. Adsorption model in removal of direct synthetic dyes in aqueous solution onto tea waste. Journal of Physics. 2019; 1-9.
46.    Chowdhury, Z., Hamid, S. and Zain, S. Evaluating design parameters for breakthrough curve analysis and kinetics of fixed bed columns for Cu (II) cations using lignocellulosic wastes. BioResources. 2015; 10 (1): 732-749.
47.    Patrick, U.A. and Cosmas, U. Studying and modeling dynamic adsorption of Lead (II) ion onto fixed bed column of activated carbon of plantain peels and bamboo. Science Journal of Environmental Engineering Research. 2016; 2016: 1-16.
48.    Patel, H. Fixed‑bed column adsorption study: a comprehensive review. Applied Water Science. 2019; 9: 45-61.
49.    Obi, C., Iheanacho, C., Nwabanne, J. and Onu, C. Packed bed column adsorption of phenol onto corn cob activated carbon: Linear and nonlinear kinetics modeling. Research Square. 2020; 1-48.
50.    Girish, C.R. and Ramachandra, M.V. Adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution using Lantana camara, forest waste: Packed bed studies and prediction of breakthrough curves. Environmental Process. 2015; 2:773–796.
51.    Luo, X., Deng, Z., Lin, X. and Zhang, C. Fixed-bed column study for Cu2+ removal from solution using expanding rice husk. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2011; 187 (1–3): 182–189.
52.    Yanhong, L., Yinian, Z., Zongqiang, Z., Xuehong, Z., Dunqiu, W. and Liwei, X. Fixed-bed column adsorption of Arsenic (V) by porous composite of magnetite/hematite/carbon with eucalyptus wood microstructure. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management. 2018; 26 (1): 38–56.
53.    Chittoo, B.S. and Sutherland, C. Column breakthrough studies for the removal and recovery of phosphate by lime-iron sludge: Modeling and optimization using artificial neural network and adaptive Neuro-fuzzy inference system. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2020; 1-56.
54.    Sotelo, J.L., Ovejero, G., Rodríguez, A., Álvarez, S. and García, J. Study of natural clay adsorbent sepiolite for the removal of caffeine from aqueous solutions: batch and fixed-bed column operation. Water Air Soil Pollution. 2013; 224 (3):1–15.
55.    Isiuku, B.O. and, Horsfall, M. Packed-bed column adsorption of Metanil Yellow (MY) from simulated wastewater using granular NaOH-activated carbon from cassava (Manihot esculenta) peels. World News of Natural Sciences. 2017; 14: 11-35.
56.    Eslami, A., Mehralian, M. and Moheb, A. A study of 4-chlorophenol continuous adsorption on nano graphene oxide column: model comparison and breakthrough behaviors. Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination. 2017; 7 (3): 272-279.
57.    Rouf, S. and Nagapadma, M. Modeling of fixed bed column studies for adsorption of Azo dye on chitosan impregnated with a cationic surfactant. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 2015; 6 (2): 538-545.
58.    Negrea, A., Mihailescu, M., Mosoarca, G., Ciopec, M., Duteanu, N., Negrea, P. and Minzatu, V. Estimation on fixed-bed column parameters of breakthrough behaviors for gold recovery by adsorption onto modified/functionalized amberlite XAD7. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17: 1-14.
59.    Sazali, N., Harun, Z. and Sazali, N. A review on batch and column adsorption of various adsorbent towards the removal of heavy metal. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2020;  67 (2): 66-88.
60.    Sugashini, S. and Begum, K. Column adsorption studies for the removal of Cr(VI) ions by ethylamine modified chitosan carbonized rice husk composite beads with modelling and optimization. Journal of Chemistry. 2013; 2013: 1-11.
61.    Chauhan, Y.P. and Talib, M. Performance evaluation of column dynamics for phenol adsorption by coal fly ash. Elixir Chemical Engineering. 2016; 97: 42131-42136.
62.    Yunnen, C., Ye, W., Chen, L., Guo Lin, Jinxia, N. and Rushan, R. Continuous fixed-bed column study and adsorption modeling: Removal of arsenate and arsenite in aqueous solution by organic modified spent grains. Pol. Journal of Environmental Studies. 2017; 26 (4): 1847-1854.
63.    Shadeera, R. and Nagapadma, M. Modeling of fixed bed column studies for adsorption of Azo dye on chitosan impregnated with a cationic surfactant. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 2015; 6 (2): 538-545.
64.    Kiran B, Kaushik A Cyanobacterial biosorption of Cr(VI): application of two parameter and Bohart Adams models for batch and column studies. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2008; 144 (3):391–399.
65.    Shah, A.J., Soni, B. and Karmee, S.K. Locally available agroresidues as potential sorbents: modelling, column studies and scale‑up. Bioresources and Bioprocessing. 2021; 8:34-47.
66.    Vairavel, P., Gautham, J. and Nakul, R. Continuous fixed-bed column studies on congo red dye adsorption-desorption using free and immobilized Nelumbo nucifera leaf adsorbent. Polymers. 2022; 14: 54-76.
67.    Muthamilselvi, P., Karthikeyan, R.  Kapoor, A. and Prabhakar, S. Continuous fixed‑bed studies for adsorptive remediation of phenol by garlic peel powder. International Journal of Industrial Chemistry. 2018; 9: 379–390.
68.    Preetha, B. and Viruthagiri, T. Batch and continuous biosorption of chromium (VI) by rhizopus arrhizus. Separation and Purification Technology. 2007; 57:126–133.
69.    Singha, S. and Sarkar, U. Analysis of the dynamic column using semi-empirical models: Case studies with removal of hexavalent chromium from effluent wastewater. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2015; 32 (1): 20–29.
70.    Markovska, L., Meshko, V. and Noveski, V. Adsorption of basic dyes in a fixed bed column. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2001; 18 (2): 190-195.
71.    Aydın, S., Nur, H., Traore, A., Yıldırım, E. and Emik, S. Fixed bed column adsorption of vanadium from water using amino-functional polymeric adsorbent. Desalination and Water Treatment. 2021; 209: 280–288.
72.    Saja, M.A., Talib, M.A. and Jamal, M.A. Adsorption of the methyl green dye pollutant from aqueous solution using mesoporous materials MCM-41 in a fixed-bed column. Heliyon. 2020; 6: 1-7.
73.    Mohammad, Y.S., Shaibu-Imodagbe, E.M., Igboro, S.B., Giwa, A. and Okuofu, C.A. Adsorption of phenol from refinery wastewater using rice husk activated carbon. Iranica Journal of Energy & Environment. 2014; 5 (4): 393-399.
74.    Tabrez, A.K. and Momina, N. Enhanced adsorptive removal of a model acid dye bromothymol blue from aqueous solution using magnetic chitosan-bamboo sawdust composite: Batch and column studies. American Institute of Chemical Engineers. 2015; 34 (5): 1444-1454.
75.    Thuong, N.T., Nhi, N., Nhung, V., Bich, H., Quynh, Bach, B. and Nguyen, T. A fixed-bed column study for removal of organic dyes from aqueous solution by pre-treated durian peel waste. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry. 2019; 19 (2): 486 – 494.

Recomonded Articles:

Author(s): Azam Z. Shaikh, Harsha Jadhav, Darshana M. Borse, Ritik. S. Jain

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2021.00028.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): K.P. Beena, G. Sathya Pooja

DOI: 10.52711/0974-4150.2022.00030         Access: Closed Access Read More

Author(s): Seema Chitlangia, Rajeev Ranjan

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2020.00016.4         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): A. Anita, A. Malar Retna, J. Joseph

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2018.00019.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Sarita Yadav, D.K. Tyagi , O.P. Yadav

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): R Manoj Prabakaran, V Niranjan, VM Seenivasan, S Thenesh Kumar

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Bouaziz-Benzid Amina, Hammoudi Roukia, Hadj Amahammed Mahfoud, Tlili Ahlem, Bouaziz Sabrina, Bekka Chahrazed, Mesrouk Houria

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2020.00001.2         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Ali Boumeftah, Abdelkader Belmokhtar, Abdelghani Benyoucef

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2021.00012.2         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): S. Rugmini Radhakrishnan, S. Sharmila Sri

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): S.Sharma, Tania Bansal, Radhika, Sandeep Kaur, Jyoti

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): Rajesh Kumar Rapolu, V.V.N.K.V. Prasada Raju, Murthy Chavali, Naveen Mulakayala

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2019.00010.5         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): G. Raveendra Babu, M. Rama Ayyappa, B. Krishna, A. Ravi Kumar, G.L.S. Priyanaka, P.N.V.S.S. Pavani, CH. L.Prasanna, B. Anjil, G.Harish

DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150.2019.00050.6         Access: Open Access Read More

Author(s): A. Elumalai, M. Chinna Eswaraiah, Raju Kasarla, Palla Ravi

DOI:         Access: Open Access Read More

Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry (AJRC) is an international, peer-reviewed journal devoted to pure and applied chemistry..... Read more >>>

RNI: Not Available                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-4150 

Popular Articles

Recent Articles