X-Ray diffraction (XRD) technique is a prominent and nondestructive tool, used for the determination of crystallographic structure of any material. The technique follows the Brag’s Law and measures the intensities and scattering angles of the X-rays that leave the material to provide information on phases, preferred crystal orientations, crystal defects, crystallinity, and many other parameters. Crystallinity Index (CI), which is a quantitative indicator of crystallinity of any material, can also be calculated using XRD data and applying Segal’s method. In the present study, XRD patterns of Alkali/Acid treated soya-hulls are recorded and used for the calculation of CI. Results indicated wide variation of CI ranging from 22%-76% with lowest value for sodium hydroxide treated and highest for ascorbic acid treated soya hulls which may be due to maximum removal of hemicelluloses and amorphous lignin type structure. This study reveals that organic acids which are more eco-friendly can work better to increase CI and cellulose content of any lignocellulosic waste biomaterials like soya hulls for the application in composite and nanocomposites material synthesis.
Cite this article:
Preeti Soni, Shweta Vyas. Studies on X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of Soya-hulls for Interpretation of Crystallinity Index. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2022; 15(3):225-7. doi: 10.52711/0974-4150.2022.00040
Preeti Soni, Shweta Vyas. Studies on X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns of Soya-hulls for Interpretation of Crystallinity Index. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2022; 15(3):225-7. doi: 10.52711/0974-4150.2022.00040 Available on: https://www.ajrconline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-15-3-9
1. V. Pecharsky, and P. Zavalij, Fundamentals of Powder Diffraction and Structural Characterization of Materials, 2nd Ed.; Springer Science, 2009, https://drxaplicacionesmx.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/pecharsky_fundamentals-of-powder-diffraction-and-structural-characterization-of-materials.pdf
2. Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia. "Bragg law." Encyclopedia Britannica, December 30, 2016. https://www.britannica.com/science/Bragg-law
3. Mariño M, Lopes da Silva L, Durán N, Tasic L., Enhanced materials from nature: nanocellulose from citrus waste, Molecules,2015;20(4):5908-5923. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules20045908
4. Nicoleta Terinte, Roger Ibbett and Kurt Christian Schuster, Overview on native cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose structure studied by x-ray diffraction (waxd): comparison between measurement techniques 2011, lenzinger berichte 89 2011, 118-131.
5. L. Segal, J. J. Creely, A. E. Jr. Martin, and C. M. Conrad. An Empirical Method for Estimating the Degree of Crystallinity of Native Cellulose using X-ray Diffractometer, Tex. Res. J. 29,1959, 786-794.
6. Shweta and Jha Bioresour. Synthesis and characterization of crystalline carboxymethylated lignin– TEOS nanocomposites for metal adsorption and antibacterial activity. Bioprocess. (2016) 3:31
7. Anuj Kumar, Yuvraj Singh Negi, Veena Choudhary, and Nishi Kant Bhardwaj, Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals Produced by Acid-Hydrolysis from Sugarcane Bagasse as Agrowaste. Journal of Materials Physics and Chemistry 2, no. 1 (2014): 1-8. doi: 10.12691/jmpc-2-1-1.
8. Zain NFM, Yusop SM, Ahmad I. Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose and Nanocellulose From Pomelo (Citrus grandis) Albedo. J Nutr Food Sci, (2015), 5: 334. https://www.longdom.org/open-access/preparation-and-characterization-of-cellulose-and-nanocellulose-2155-9600-5-334.pdf